Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are realized as single particles.

Relativized verbs may also be treated as manner adverbials and may either directly precede or succeed the subject of the main verb.

'Voreh loudly sings.'

Nin-di                  Voreh  hi-naa

sing-PRS.S.NTR Voreh REL-loud

'Valuur dances happily.'

Shav-ti                   Valuur  hi-zas

dance-PRS.S.NTR Valuur REL-happy

Conjunctions Edit

Coordinating Conjunctions Edit

Coordinating conjunctions in Taran may be used to combine multiple verbs, nouns, adverbs, or clauses.

List of coordinating conjunctions:

Hlem/em/e: presents two non-contrasting clauses; “and”

Sav: presents two non-contrasting word classes together, such as nouns with nouns or verbs with verbs; “and”.

No: presents a contrast or exception; “but” or “but not”.

Qono: presents an alternative item or idea, the exclusive disjunction; “either… or”

There is a contrast between presenting two non-contrasting clauses and presenting two non-contrasting word class groups. Two separate morphemes are used for each respective case.

"I run and I jump."

Xhav-fun-di                       hlem xhav-ghom-di

1.S.OBJ-run-PRS.S.NTR and   1.S.OBJ-jump-PRS.S.NTR

"You will never begin to take control of me, not today or on any day."

Xhav-ro-qa-shou-shom-da                                       dou sav zoqudou.

1.S.OBJ-2.S.-NEG-SUB-begin-control-PRS.S.TR day  and on no day

The coordinating conjunction no may take on nominal, verbal, or clausal complements.

'I have one goat, but not any yaks.'

Hla-hohlat-sa                    niera-kan no da-daazo

1.S.SUB-have-PRS.S.TR goat-one  but cow-cow

'I took the bread but didn’t eat it.'

Hla-sa-kan-ta                             gien   no  tav-hla-foq-da

1.S.SUB-CAU-give-PRS.S.TR bread but 3.S.OBJ-1.S.SUB-eat-PRS.S.TR

'The swordmaster attacked but didn’t kill Taloun.'

Tav-fut-sa                           ne-xaan      no   ra-sahaaq-sa                 Taloun.

3.S.OBJ-attack-PST.S.TR user-sword but 3.S.SUB-kill-PST.S.TR Taloun

The coordinating conjunction qono, meaning “or,” is an exclusive disjunction by which one idea or item may be the case, but not the other.

When a verb would be otherwise repeated in the second half of the conjunct, it may be replaced by a proverb.

'Either she’s deceiving us or she isn’t.'

Qov-ra-houzh-ta                                  qono qa-ta

1.P.OBJ-3.S.SUB-deceive-PRS.S.TR or     NEG-PRS.S.TR

In some rare cases, a verb marked as a relativized clause may be treated as a main verb. In this case, the proverb is not mentioned at all, and the sentence ends with the conjunction or an optional negation.

'Either Varoux is dead or he isn’t."

Varoux hi-huk    qono (qu)

Varoux REL-die or     NEG

Correlative Conjunctions Edit

Correlative conjunctions in Taran are used to express lists of three or more.

Ni…m: presents three or more non-contrasting clauses; “and”

Ni… sov: presents three or more non-contrasting items or actions; “and”

Ni… no: presents three or more contrasting items or actions, only one of which can be the case; “either… or”

The first particle directly precedes the list and the second is placed between the penultimate and final item on the list.

'She either flew to Qa Rimu, Fahar, or Farasat.'

Tav-shan-si                     ni       fu-Qa Rimu Fahar no Farasat

1.S.OBJ-fly-PST.S.NTR either to-Qa Rimu Fahar  or Farasat

'The people eat curd cheese, goat meat, and drink yak milk.'

Foq-dam              shus    ni     die                fanier       sov holo-daas

ingest-PRS.P.TR people PRT curd cheese goat meat and liquid-yak

Subordinating Conjunctions Edit

Subordinating conjunctions or prepositions include a number of adpositives and other grammatical functions. There is no syntactic or morphological difference in the treatment between what may be called a subordinating conjunction and a preposition. Unlike coordinating and correlative conjunctions, subordinating grammatical elements are typically treated as prefixes rather than separate particles.

Mam/am: anti-benefactive, “against”

Fi: before in place or time; “before”

Fu: progressing in the direction of, “to” in a locative sense

Ghu: comitative “with”

Neha: who

Sash: expresses cause or reason; “because” or “by”

Sezh: in order to, for

Shi: expresses the use of an instrument for; “with”

Zhe: behind in place or time; “after”

Zo: when

Subordinating conjunctions precede their complement and directly attach to the first word if it is a multi-word complement. Conjunctive phrases are placed between the subject and object of a sentence.

Xhadouk kills Zhokur with a sabre after he attacks the king.

Sahaaq-ta        Xhadouk shi-xaando Zhokur zhe     ra-fut-sa                

kill-PRS.S.TR Xhadouk with-sabre  Zhokur after 1.S.SUB-attack-PRS.S.TR



Subordinating conjunctions may also act as interrogative particles in questions.

'Why did you refuse me?'

Xhav-ro-qar-da                                  sash

1.S.OBJ-2.S.SUB-refuse-PRS.S.TR because

'Who sang?'

Vil-zi                    neha

sing-PRS.S.NTR person